Science Red in Tooth and Claw:

Section 1: By Jared

In 1787, someone found an enormous thighbone at the bank of Woodbury Creek in New Jersey. It didn't belong to any creatures alive at the time. Defiantly not one found in New Jersey. From what is known now, it belonged to a Hadrosaur, which is a large duck billed dinosaur. Dinosaurs were still not known.

The bone was then sent to Dr. Caspar Wistar, who was the nations leading anatomist. Unfortunately he failed to recognize the bone's importance and just said that it was just a whopper. He missed the chance to discover the dinosaurs half a century before anyone else. The bone was sent to a storeroom and was misplaced until it disappeared. So, the first dinosaur discovered was the first one to get lost.

In Philadelphia, naturalists had begun to assemble the bones of a huge elephant-like creature which is known as "the great American incognitum" at first, but later identified as a mammoth (which isn't correct).

The first of these bones was discovered at Big Bone Lick in Kentucky, but soon others were found from all over. America had once been the home of a very substantial creature. They even thought it was a giant ground-sloth. Then tusks were discovered, so sloths were out of the question. They tried a lot of different ways that the creature's head would look like. One restorer screwed the tusks upside down like a saber-toothed tiger, making it look aggressive. Another screwed them in so that they curved backwards as if it were aquatic to use it like an anchor. The best consideration was that it was extinct.


250px-Caspar_Wistar.jpgDr Caspar Wistar

Section2 : By Kaitlyn
English men found in1706 the real value of fossils. Young William Smith was a construction supervisor on the Somerset Coal Canal. In January of 1796, he wrote down a notion. It was that to interpret rocks. He needed a guild line to be able to tell that carboniferous rocks from Devon aren't as old as the ones in Wales. His insight helped with the realization on fossil ages. To find a species fossil's age, they lied in stratas. You could find a relative age by where they appear. As a surveyor, Smith began a map of Britain's rock strata. The map is still used in modern geology.People still wondered about extinction. Was if all from a flood from God? Why was it repetitive? He needed to explain why some were extinct and some survived. There were to many accounts of fossils in different ages for one incident to wipe out all the species that became fossils. In the nineteenth century, fossils became more important. Bones of more species came about. Although that is true, none could claim the discoveries. In 1806, Lewis and Clark would really just hit dinosaur bones in the rock but did nothing with them. In 1808, Yale kept the dinosaur bones to examine them but were not recognized until1855.

Section 3: By Kaitlyn
Around 1812, paleontology became very popular in England. Mary Anning, only 11 to 13 years old, in Dorset Coast, found a strange fossil of a "sea monster". Certain accounts say it was 17 feet long and is called a ichthyosaurus. It was found in a steep cliff near the English Channel. It started a career for her next 35 years of fossil findings. She sold them to visitors. She found the first of many species like the pterodactyls. They weren't technically dinosaurs, because nobody really knew what that was.It just showed that the world had at one time was the home of creatures unknown till now. Many of her delicate works at finding fossils can be found in the Natural History Museum in London. Her detailed sketches and descriptions helped scholars understand the fossils. Though she found great things, they were not often so she lived life with little to be left. She is often overlooked unlike Gideon Algernon Mantell. He was a doctor in Sussex. He was a self-centered man whose wife stumbled upon a fossilized tooth in the ground. He studied and identified it later and was right but it was incredible to him. He spent a whole three years searching for evidence to back up his findings. Eventually, he sent the tooth to Cuvier in Paris. Even though they were wrong, they ended it as a hippos tooth. Later, when talking with a researcher in the Hunterian Museum in London, the researcher said it was like Iguanas he studied. He named it and Iguanadon which was not even related to the tropical iguana the other man studied. Mantell wrote a paper to the Royal Society. It turns out, the dinosaur was already named by a man that urged him not to act on his findings. It was named as a Megalosaurus. The man said the teeth weren't set like iguanas but more like crocodiles. Buckland , the man who urged Mantell, didn't realize that what he found was an entirely new type of creature. In the end, Buckland got the undserving credit for the discovery of an ancient line. Although disappointed, Mantel continued to looking for fossils. He was very talented but could not support it. He did make books that only sold 15 copies. He decided to open his house for admission, but found it not noble for a scientist. He eventually let people in free, and they came in the hundreds.


Section 4: By Rich
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Richard Owen (1) was born a comparative anatomist and so devoted to his studies. Owen grew up in Lancaster, north of England, where he trained as a doctor. He had the first museum of life size of dinosaurs, and he also noted the very first theme park. The head of the table he was a young star. Owen swiftly distinguished himself with his power of organization and dedication. He was a Professor of Comparative Anatomy. In 1821, at the age of 21, Owen moved to London to go to Royal College of Surgeons and help organize the their collection of specimens. He coined the term "dinosaria" which means "terrible lizard" in 1841. In 1856, he became head of the natural history section of the British Museum. In the district of Sydenham, in south of London, at a place called Crystal Palace Park, there stood a forgotten sight. It was the first life sized model of a dinosaur. Owen became an idealist for the creation of London's Natural History Museum. It opened in the year 1880 in South Kensington.
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Edward Drinker Cope
Section 5: By Allison
: Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh were two nineteenth-century paleontologist. They were once friends, so close that they named fossil species after each other. Nobody knows what happened, but something went wrong between them. The older man, Marsh, hardly ever spent time in the field , and when he did, he didn't contribute much. His father was a farmer, so he came from a modest family. Marsh had an extremely rich uncle, though, by the name of George Peabody. When Marsh became interested in natural history, Peabody had a museum built for him at Yale and provided enough money for Marsh to fill it with almost whatever he desired. Cope was more so born into wealth, because his father was a successful Philadelphia businessman.
The start of the war between them began in 1877 when a school teacher named Arthur lakes found bones near Morrison, Colorado. Lakes found the bones while he was hiking, then he sent out some samples to both Cope and Marsh. Cope sent Lakes a hundred dollars for all of his trouble and asked him not to tell anyone what he found. Marsh was then asked by Lakes to pass the bones along to Cope, and he did so, but he never forgot it.

After that incident Cope and Marsh's feud became somewhat childish. They would throw rocks at each others teams, insult each other in print, and Cope was once caught jimmying open crates that belonged to Marsh! Even though they acted distastefully, they still made contributions to the scientific community. Put together, the two men increased the number of known dinosaur species from 9 to nearly 150! Cope and Marsh, unfortunately, often worked in a reckless haste that caused them to 'discover' something that they had already discovered themselves. Some of the classification mistakes they made haven't even been sorted out yet.
Between the two of them, Cope had a much more successful career, but in the end he invested foolishly in silver and lost everything. He lived in a single room in a Philadelphia boarding house surrounded by books, paper, and of course, bones. Marsh, in contrast, spent his last days in a mansion in New Haven. In his final years, Cope decided he wanted to be the official set of human bones for the human race. Even though the first set of bones found for a species is the specimen, there wasn't one for the homo sapiens, and no one could object to his wishes. He died in the year 1897, but once he willed his bones to the Wistar Institute and they prepared and assembled his bones, they found that the bones showed signs of incipient syphilis, so they couldn't be used. Cope's bones were quietly shelved, so there is still no type specimen for modern humans. Marsh died two years after Cope, in 1899.

(1) http://www.yahoo.com/images