A NEW AGE DAWNS: CHAPTER 8 EINSTEIN'S UNIVERSE part 4

Written by Jordan
Einstein's original theory of relativity stated the universe is either expanding or contracting. He called it, "the biggest blunder of my life." Which means he messed it up. Coincidentally, at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona, an astronomer was taking readings of the stars. The astronomers name was Vesto Slipher. Those readings of stars, he predicted, are moving away from us. Those stars, Slipher observed, showed signs of a Doppler shift. It was also called a red shift, because it's light moving away from our view towards the red end of the light spectrum;b coming toward us it would turn blue. Slipher realized the effect of light and its importance for understanding the motions of space. Slipher hadn't heard of Einstein's theory, and no one would ever hear of Vesto Slipher's discovery.
Instead, Edwin Hubble would get the glory of the discovery. He was many things. He was intelligent, charming, athletic, and extremely good looking. He was supposedly a perfect man, like saving drowning swimmers and knocking out world boxing champions. He was also a good liar,too. He was a shoe in for the University of Chicago to study physics and astronomy. He was a high school teacher and basketball coach in Indiana, before he went to France. In 1919, he moved to California and started working at Mount Wilson Observatory. He quickly became the most outstanding scientist in the 20th century. Scientist, at the time, thought there were only one galaxy and it was the Milky Way. Hubble examined the stars through their telescope, and proved there were more galaxies. He later asked himself, "how old is a galaxy and how big is it?" To answer those questions you must know -how far away and how fast the galaxy is moving away from us. You must also know need to know what "standard candles" are. Hubble didn't do it all on his own. He had help from two "computers". Who are Henrietta Swan Leavitt and Annie Jump Cannon. Cannon discovered a way to classify stars. Leavitt discovered that a star called a Cephid variable.
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This is the Hubble Space Telescope
That pulsed at a regular rythem. An example of a Chephid is the star Polaris. Leavitt's discovery was to help the understanding by comparing Cephids at different points in the skyin relation to each other. Edwin Hubble took Leavitt's "star mapper" and Vesto Slipher's red shift, to find the answer to his questions about his galaxies. Hubble discovered that the further away the galaxy, the faster it was moving. Hubble produced a book named The Realm of the Nebulae. Hubble died form a heat attack in 1953. In 1990, they named the Hubble Space Telescope in his honor.








Einstein was a remarkable man. He was born in Ulm Germany in 1879. This was just one of the many places he lived during his childhood. In the 1890's his fathers electrical business was failing so the family moved yet again to Milan,Italy. Since at this time he was a teenager so Albert stayed behind. The reason he stayed behind to attend college, but he failed his college entrance exams upon the first try
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Part 3
Written by Ashley

Poet Paul Valery asked Einstein if he kept a notebook to record his ideas. Einstein said,"oh, that's not necessary", with a suprising look on his face. Einstein's next ideas was one of the greatest he has ever had, according to Boorse,Motz, and Weaverin, their thoughtful history of atomic science. "As the creation of a single mind," they wrote," it is undoubtedly the highest intellectual achievement of humanity." In 1907, Albert Einstein saw a workman fall of a roof and he began to wonder about gravity. "This one appears to be apocryphyl," he said. According to Einstein, he was simply sitting in a chair when the problem of gravity occured to him.

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Einsteins past

Albert Einstein was a very remarkable man. He made a lot of impacts in this work including his famous equation E=MC2. Thiswas a great discovery but alot happened before this break through.
He was born in Southern Germany in 1879. When Einstein was a teenager his father's electrical business failed, so they made yet another move to Milan, Haly. Albert stayed behind to get and education, he gave up his German Citizenship in order to avoid going into the military. He then went to Switzerland to get a college education. When he went to take his college entrance exams, he failed it three times. So this causedhim to go to Zurich Polytechnic Institutue on a four year course designed to make high school teachers. Albert was very bright, but not an outstanding student. After graduation in 1900, thats when he began to produce papers to Annaien der Physik. His very first paper was on "The Physics of Fluids in a Drinking Straw. This paper appeared in the same volume as Planck's Quantum theroy. 1902 -1904 he continued to produce papers, but not on straws. He did it on statical mechanics. This was just the beginning of great things to come.
While doing all this he had fallen in love with a Hungarian named Mileva Maria. In 1901, they had a baby girl at a wedlock which was secretly put up for adoption. The good thing that came of this was two years later they were married. The last thing I haven't covered was how he got the equation(E=MC2). In 1905 he produced a paper called "Electrodynamic of Moving Bodies". Which is now considered teh greatest science paper ever written. He came up with it by pure thought by himself basically. The equationdid not appear in a paper, but a couple of months later in a supplement came in the equation. The E=energy, M=mass, C2=speed of light. Which is quite a large number. The equation is saying that a huge amount of energy bound up in every material thing. I guess all this proves that Albert Einstein was a truly remarkable man from start to end.

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A NEW AGE DAWNS: CHAPTER 8: ENSTEIN'S UNIVERSE: PART 4
NINETEENTH CENTURY SCIENCE
written by RAIDER-Christina

By the end of the nineteenth century scientist were satisfied with what they had discovered, pinned down, invented, ect...
Because of all these discoveries, young German in Kiel named Max Planck chose physics over mathmatics in 1875. He put everything into physics, In 1891 he learned the work he did had been done before by a man named J. Willard Gibbs.
Gibbs was not famous but yet most intelligent. He studied in Europe and Yale University. The title of his writings was On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances. The Equilibrium was called "the Principia of thermodynamics." He chose to finalize it in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of
Arts and Sciences. Planck did not hear of him until too late.
"Plack turned to other matters. We shall turn to these ourselves ina moment, but first we must make a slight (but relecant!) detour to Cleveland, Ohio, and an institution then known as the Case School of Applied Science." In 1880, Edward Morley assisted Albert Michelson creating several experiments the create "curious and disturbing" answers. The results have "great ramifications" for what happened next.
Michelson and Morley acidently was undermined a longstanding belife in luminiferous ether, a stable, invisible, weightless, frictionless, and unfortunately wholly inaginary medium that was thought to permeate the universe. A way of explaining how light traveled through the emptiness of space, the ether had absolute centrality of. 1800s light and electromagnesium was seen as waves, type of vibration.
In 1909, British physicist, J. J. Thomson thought: "The ether is not a fantastic creation of the spective philosopher; it is as essential to us as the air we breath"--this was after it was established that it didn't exist.
Albert Michelson's life: born 1852, border of German-Polish, poor Jewish merchants, came to U.S. as an infant, grew up mining in California, his father had a dry goods buisness, too poor for college, walked in frount of the white house to fall in beside the President. Grant sent him to U.S. Naval Academy, where he learned pysics. He became interested in the ether drift--kind of head wind produced by moving objects as the plowed through space. He figured out how to measure the predictionof Newtonian physics was that the speed of light as it pushed through the ether should vary with respect to an observer depending on whether the observer was moving toward the source of light or away.
Caltech astophysicist Kip S. Thorne wrote: "The speed of light turned out to be the same in all directions and at all seasons." It was the first hint in twohundered years, in fact--that Newton's laws might not apply allt the time.
Michelson was awarded a Nobel Prizw in physics for the work
When the twentieth century dawned Michelson, him and others thought that the world of science was over. The world was just about to enter where no one understood everything. The world was changing from a world of macrophysics to a world of microphysics; the quantum age. The scientist to make that first step was Max Planck. In 1900, Planck unveiled a new "quantum theory" which posited that energy is not a continuous quanta. It would help to provide a solution to the Michelson-Morley experiments.
The dawn of a new age came in 1905. When in the German physics journal Annalen der Physik there appeared.
Albert Einstein submitted to Annalen der Physik five papers, of three. As C.P. Snow thought "were among the greatest in the history of physics."
The first explained the nature of light(won a Nobel Prize); the second showed atoms do exist; the third changed the world.

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Max Planck--took first steps of science into 20th century.