Section 1 Taylor THEORY CITY!!!!!!!
Charles Hapgood observed that a few gullible souls had noticed "an apparent correspondence in shape between certain continents South America might be fitted together with Africa. It is even claimed that rock formations on opposite sides of the Atlantic match. Hapgood briskly dismissed any such notions. Geologists K.E. Caster and J.C. Mendes have done extensive fieldwork on both sides of the Atlantic and have established beyond question that no such similarities existed. Actually many of the rock formations no both sides of the Atlantic are the same- not just very similar but the same. This idea did not fly with Mr. Hapgood.
The theory he alluded to was one first propounded in 1908 by an amateur American geologists named Frank Bursley Taylor. He was also struck by the similarity in shape between the facing coastlines of Africa and South America and from this Taylor developed the idea that the continents had once slid around.
Alfred Wegener investigated the many plant and fossil anomalies that did not fit comfortably in the standard model Earth history and realized that very little of it made sense if conventionally interpreted. Animal fossils repeatedly were found on opposite sides of the oceanthat were clearly way too wide to swim. Wegener asked," How did marsupials travel from South America to Australia? How do identical snails turn up in Scandinavia and New England?
Alfred Wegener
Wegener developed a theory that at one point the worlds continents were once together in a single landmass call Pangaea. He put all this together in a book he called Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane( The orgin of Continents and Ocean.)
which was published in German in 1912 and in three years in English. Because of the war, Wegner's theory didn't attract much notice at first, but by 1920, when he produced a revised and expanded edition, it quickly became a subject of discussion. Everyone agreed that the continents moved but up and down, not sideways. One idea is the baked apple theory propounded by the Austrian Eduard Suess just before the turn of the century. This suggested that as the molten Earth had cooled, it had become wrinkled in the manner of a baked apple, creating ocean basins and mountain ranges. If Suess's theory was correct then mountains should be evenly distributed across the face of the Earth, which patently they were not, and of more or less the same ages. It was clear that there were mountains way older than others so a new theory was ready to ripe. Alfred Wegener was not the man that geologists wished to provide it. His radical notions questioned the foundations of their discipline, seldom an effective way to generate warmth in an audience. Such a challenge would have been painful enough coming from a geologist, but Wegener had no background in geology. Geologists took every pain they could think of to dismiss his evidence and belittle his suggestions.
Even land bridges couldn't explain some things. Trilobite was found in two different countries but in different places. Nobody could figure out how this creature crossed two thousand miles of ocean and failed to find its way around the corner of a two hundred mile wide island. Anomalous was another species of the trilobite found in two different countries.
Wegener asserted that Greenland is drifting west by about a mile a year.
Arthur Holmes
Arthur Holmes did a lot to determine the age of the Earth.The first scientists to understand that radioactive warming could produce convection currents within the Earth was holmes. These could be powerful enough to slide continents around on the surface in theory. In 1944 a book was published called Principles of Physical Geology. In this he laid out a continental drift theory that was in its fundamentals the theory tht prevails today.
In 1950 a vote at the annual meeting of the British Association for the Advanced of Science showed that about half of those present now embraced the idea of continental drift.
Reginald Daly spoke for Holmes theory, but if you may recall he is the one that said the moon was formed by a cosmic impact. So most American academics believed that the continents had occupied their present positions forever, but this is when all the continents were still together as Pangaea.
But oil company geologists have known forever that if you wanted to find oil you had to have the sort of surface movements that were implied by plate tectonics. But hey they don't write academic papers, they just find OIL.

an observation of plate tectonics

Section 12.2 MATT Plate Tectonics.
One problem that
all scientists had with all the theories of earth's movement was what happened to all the sediment? Earths rivers carry massive volumes of eroded material a year to the sea. Now, say a river carries 500 million tons of sediment to the ocean. Now, multiply the rate of disposition with the number of years it has been going on. That would equal twelve miles of sediment a year, enough to make the ocean floor raise out of the ocean. what did scientist do? ignored it.

But one scientist made a huge discovery. His name was Harry Hess, a Princeton University mineralogist. In World War 2, he was stationed aboard the U.S.S Cape
Johnson. On this vessel, he was put in charge of the fathometer, a depth sounding device. He studied it all the time, and never turned it off, even in a battle. His discovery: the ocean floors were not covered in miles high of sediment, as everyone had assumed. Instead, he found few layers of silts. He also discovered that the ocean floor was covered with canyons, crevasses, and trenches. He also discovered volcan ic sea mounts he named guyouts, after Arnold Guyout, a geologist at Princeton. He never got a chance to finish his studies, the war was more important.

Although he never got to finish his studies, he led the way for many other scientist to discover what was going on down in the ocean floor. In the 1950's, oceanograp
hers discovered a huge mountain range, mostly underwater, that stretched a total of 46,000 miles. Also, scientist in London discovered, through studying rocks, that the continents had once been in different places. Also, in 1963, two scientist explained, through the various studies over the years of the ocean floor, that the continents were not moving, but proposed the theory that the crust was made up of plates. This theory came to be known as "plate tectonics"

CHAPTER 12.3 The Way The Earth Moves ADDISON

Who: Many geologist helped in the discovery of plate tectonics. It explains the surface dynamics of earth.
They discovered it's internal actions. Things they discovered were earthquakes and island chains.
Geologist McPhee noted these discoveries.

What: Plate tectonics is to blame for earthquakes, the formation of island chains, the carbon cycle, the
(grand teton mountians)
locations of mountains, the coming of ice ages, the orgins of life itself. Plate tectonics has a direct
influence on almost everything involved with earth. It explains why the continents are in the places they
are today, where they were, and where they will be.

Where: This occurrence takes place everywhere on the earth. It effects animals to continents. The theory
of plate tectonics is always taking place. it has always taken place. It will always be taking place.

When: Plate tectonics is an on-going process that has been happening since the earth formed. We can
tell this from mountain chains, plants, and animals. Some mountain chains start in one country and are
found ending in another country across the globe. Also dinosaur bones have been found in two very
different countries that they found half the skeleton an one country and the other half in another. Also some plants have been found on the coast of one country and more of the sane plant on the coast of another country.

How: Magma, a substance like lava, is under the crust and very hot. If it over heats the earth would burn up! So to keep that from happening the magma circulates to the crust to cool and back down towards the core to heat back up. This circulation of magma is called convection. Plates and continents "float" on top of the magma. The constant movement of the magma is the reason our continents drift.

PAIGE Section 4 People who helped the world of science!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Some scientists did not live to see their ideas vindicated such as Alfred Wegener and Albert Einstein. Wegener died on
an expedition to Greenland in 1930. He went alone on his birthday and never came back, he was found later frozen to
death. Einstein died at Princeton, New Jersey in 1955, because of old age. Harry Hass, a principle player in the
emergencies of tectonics theory, was in Princeton also. He spent his career teaching there. He had a student named
Walter Alveraz who helped start the process of geology and cataclys

224876372_e4866b99de_m.jpg Alfred Wegener's plate tectonics